Heidi's recent article Mach’s Principle, Action at a Distance and Cosmology reaches almost 900 downloads.

In the summer of 1964, Hoyle was ready to present his now famous theory for the first time to a meeting of the Royal Society of London. The night before the lecture, Narlikar, one of Hoyle's grad students, allowed Stephen Hawking, then also a grad student, to read the Hoyle-Narlikar manuscript. Hawking worked all night through the paper and discovered that the advanced-wave integral for the mass interaction diverges.

At the end of Hoyle’s lecture the next day, Hawking stood up and claimed in front of the Royal Society dignitaries the theory incorrect. The moment has been documented in the first episode of the BBC TV series entitled Hawking. Hawking later published a paper on the divergence in 1965.

Heidi's paper shows that the advanced-wave integral does not necessarily diverge if one builds in the experimental observation, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2011, that not only is the universe expanding but also accelerating.  This acceleration of the universe causes a distance cutoff for the advanced waves, and as Heidi has demonstrated the advanced-wave integral no longer diverges. The Hoyle-Narlikar theory is therefore viable once again and Hawking’s criticism no longer valid.

Hoyle-Narlikar theory is fully consistent with Einstein’s general relativity. The starting point of the theory is a simple interaction between two masses. All interactions of all masses in the universe are summed to give the total gravitational interaction. There can be clumps of mass and the clumps can be moving. 

Einstein’s general relativity is recovered in the limit of the mass density of the universe being taken to be a smooth fluid. You also have to be in the rest frame of the fluid. Basically, Einstein’s relativity is a smooth fluid, rest frame version of Hoyle Narlikar.

Hoyle introduced a creation field (C-field) to add matter continuously as the universe expands. Thus the matter density would remain constant as the universe expands. Heidi removed the C-field since it was unnecessary to the theory, the resulting work is not steady state. 

The Hoyle-Narlikar work is for gravitation what the Wheeler Feynman absorber theory 1945-49 was for classical electromagnetism. Davies and Narlikar in the 1950's-60’s extended the absorber theory from classical electromagnetism to the relativistic QED regime.

We now have working theories for QED and gravitation that involve advanced waves. John Cramer also uses the advanced wave idea in his transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, which Heidi has used to reconsider delayed-choice quantum erasing in another recent publication